Other than in the case of a cesarean section or a mastectomy, there was little invasive surgery available to women prior to the discovery of anesthesia in the mid nineteenth century, though a number of instruments were designed for women prior to that.
The surgery, surgical pathology, and surgical anatomy of the female pelvis organs, 5th ed. (1882) by Henry Savage
This is a lithographic representation of the repair of a vesicovaginal fistula in Sim's position. This condition was first successfully treated by Dr. James Sims in the nineteenth century, but women around the world still suffer from this tragic complication of giving birth.
Eighteenth Century Surgical Instruments
This is a page from Volume IV of Benjamin Bell's "System of Surgery" (1804) illustrating several contemporary surgical instruments one of which was designed by Dr. Hunter. The upper illustration shows his polypus loop which was used for the removal of uterine polyps and for aneurysm repair.
Repositor by Sharp and Smith, Nineteenth Century
Male physicians often attributed various women’s disorders such as pain, dysmenorrhea, and mood swings (called "hysteria) to an abnormally placed, or “dropped” uterus, and the obvious therapy was to reposition this organ with an instrument called a repositor.
Early 20th Century Vibrator by White Cross
In the early twentieth century, vaginal stimulation with vibratory devices for the treatment of female hysteria was a common and lucrative part of many physicians’ office practices, and small electric vibrators were frequently found in homes throughout America for personal use.